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Diabetic Glossary

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A
A1C
A1C is an abbreviation for the test that determines a person's average amount of sugar (glucose) in their blood over the course of the previous two to three months. Hemoglobin is the component of a red blood cell that is responsible for transporting oxygen to the body's cells. Hemoglobin also frequently combines with glucose in the bloodstream. This test, which is also known as hemoglobin A1C or glycosylated hemoglobin, measures the amount of glucose that binds to red blood cells and is proportional to the amount of glucose that is present in the blood.
Acanthosis Nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans is a skin condition that is characterized by darkened patches of skin; it is common in people whose bodies do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced in their pancreas (insulin resistance). People who have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are also at an increased risk of developing this skin condition.
Acesulfame-k
Acesulfame-k is an artificial sweetener that can be used in place of sugar. Since it does not contain any carbohydrates or sugar, it does not affect the levels of sugar in the blood in any way. In processed foods that are low in calories, this sweetener is frequently used in combination with other types of artificial sweeteners. In addition, it is sold under the brand names Sunette, Sweet One, and Swiss Sweet as a tabletop sweetener.
Acetone
Acetone is a chemical that is produced in the blood when the body uses fat for energy rather than sugar; the presence of acetone is typically an indication that the cells are lacking in nutrients. The process by which the body produces acetone is referred to as "ketosis" in common parlance. It happens when there is either an absolute or relative lack of insulin, which prevents sugars from entering cells to be used as a source of energy. After that, the body looks for alternative sources of energy, such as proteins from muscle and fat from fat cells, to use. Acetone is eliminated from the body via the kidneys and into the urine.
Acidosis
Acidosis is a condition in which there is an excessive amount of acid in the body; this condition typically results from the starvation of cells, which leads to the production of ketones like acetone; the most common form of acidosis in diabetics is known as ketoacidosis.
Acute
Acute is defined as having a sudden onset that is typically very severe and lasting for only a short amount of time.
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes
"Non-insulin dependent diabetes" is also considered an incorrect phrase when describing type 2 diabetes because patients with this type of diabetes may at some point require insulin treatment. The term "adult-onset diabetes" refers to type 2 diabetes, which is no longer used because this type of diabetes is now commonly seen in children.
Advantame
Advantame is a sugar substitute that is approved by the FDA and is very similar to aspartame. It can be used both as a sweetener at the table and as an ingredient in the kitchen. Additionally, advantame can be utilized in the production of baked goods, soft drinks and other types of non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, candies, frostings, frozen desserts, gelatins and puddings, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices, toppings, and syrups.
Advanced Glycosylation End Products
Advanced glycosylation end products are what are referred to as AGEs. When glucose binds to protein, this process results in the production of AGEs in the body. They contribute to the damage that occurs to blood vessels, which can result in complications related to diabetes.
Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise is any rhythmic physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the heart and lungs to work harder than when your body is at rest. Aerobic exercise can be found in a wide variety of sports and fitness activities. It is also known as cardiovascular exercise, and it has been demonstrated to bring blood sugar levels down.
Albuminuria
Albuminuria is a condition that occurs when the kidneys are damaged and begin to leak protein into the urine. Albumin is a relatively small protein that is found in high concentrations in the blood. Because of its size, it is more likely than other proteins to be excreted in the urine. Albuminuria affects approximately 30–45 percent of people with type 1 diabetes who have been diagnosed with the condition for at least ten years. In people who have recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the kidneys may already show signs of "microalbuminuria," which is another name for the spillage of small amounts of protein. This could be the result of diabetes, or it could be the result of another disease that frequently occurs alongside diabetes, such as high blood pressure. The presence of protein in the urine is associated with an increased risk of developing kidney disease that has progressed to its final stage. Additionally, it indicates that the individual is at an extremely elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Alpha Cell
Alpha cells are a type of cell that are found in the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the pancreas. These cells are responsible for the production and release of the hormone known as "glucagon." Glucagon performs a function that is diametrically opposed to that of insulin: it raises the level of glucose in the blood by causing the release of sugar that has been stored in the liver.
Amyotrophy
The condition known as amyotrophy is a form of neuropathy that can cause pain, weakness, and/or wasting in the muscles.
Birth Defect
A birth defect or a departure from the norm or the average is referred to as an anomaly.
Anemia
Anemia is a condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells, which results in a decreased amount of oxygen being transported to the cells of the body.
Antibodies
Antibodies are a type of protein that the body generates in order to defend itself against invading organisms like bacteria and viruses.
Angiopathy
Any disease that affects the blood vessels (veins, arteries, or capillaries) or lymphatic vessels is referred to as angiopathy.
angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)
ARB is an abbreviation for angiotensin receptor blocker, which refers to a type of medication that can be taken orally to reduce high blood pressure.
Antidiabetic Agent
An antidiabetic agent is a substance that aids people who suffer from diabetes in managing the amount of sugar that is present in their blood.
Antigens
Antigens are substances that cause an immune response in the body, identifying substances or markers on cells; the body produces antibodies to fight antigens, or harmful substances, and tries to eliminate them. Identifying substances or markers on cells.
Artery
An artery is a type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body; arteries are larger and more rigid than veins, and their walls are also thicker and more resilient. A condition referred to as "atherosclerosis" describes the process by which arterial walls can sometimes develop plaque. These plaques can become fragile and rupture, which can lead to complications associated with diabetes such as heart attacks and strokes. These complications can be prevented by controlling diabetes.
Artificial Pancreas
An artificial pancreas consists of a glucose sensor that is connected to an insulin delivery device. These two components are linked to one another through something that is referred to as a "closed loop system." In other words, it is a system that is not only capable of determining the glucose level in the body, but also uses that information to secrete the appropriate amounts of insulin for the specific sugar that it has just measured. Because the artificial pancreas has the ability to regulate the amount of insulin that is released, the device will deliver less insulin when blood sugar levels are low. Studies utilizing a prosthetic pancreas are currently being conducted, and it is hoped that this system will be available for purchase in the marketplace within the next five years. Research is also being done to develop an implantable version of this system, which is currently under investigation.
Aspartame
An artificial sweetener used in place of sugar, because it has few calories; sold as ''Equal" and "NutraSweet."
Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic means that there are no symptoms and there are no obvious signs that a disease is present.
Antibody Test for Diabetes
Test for autoantibodies This blood test, known as the zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test, is used in conjunction with other pieces of information and the results of other tests to determine whether or not a person has type 1 diabetes as opposed to another type of diabetes.
Autoimmune Disease
Autoimmune disease is a disorder of the body's immune system in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself; examples of autoimmune diseases include type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, and hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's disease. Autoimmune diseases can also cause hypothyroidism. Autoimmune diseases can also cause type 1 diabetes.
Autonomic Neuropathy
Damage to the nerves in the part of the nervous system that is not under our conscious control is known as autonomic neuropathy. These nerves are responsible for the function of our digestive system, blood vessels, urinary system, skin, and sex organs. Autonomic nerves are nerves that are not controlled by the person but instead function on their own.
B
Background Retinopathy
This is the form of diabetic eye disease that is the least severe and is associated with normal vision. It is brought on by diabetes. Eye damage can progress to more serious forms if the diabetic patient has the condition for a longer period of time or if their blood sugar is not under control.
Bariatric Surgery
Bariatric surgery, which is also referred to as "weight loss surgery," refers to a variety of operations that involve removing, bypassing, or restricting a portion of the gastrointestinal tract in order to restrict the amount of food that a person is able to consume. Not only do patients experience weight loss, but research has shown that this treatment may also be effective in putting patients with type 2 diabetes into remission. Bariatric procedures include gastric sleeve surgery, gastric bypass surgery, and gastric banding. Other bariatric procedures include biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. People who have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, or people who have a BMI of 35 or higher and also have a serious health problem related to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or sleep apnea, are eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is only approved for people who are clinically obese.
Basal Insulin
Insulin of the basal type is the type that is always present in the background and is responsible for maintaining a steady blood glucose level while you are fasting (such as when you are asleep). Insulin therapy patients typically take long-acting or intermediate-acting insulins, both of which are injected subcutaneously and work by being gradually released into the bloodstream over the course of 24 hours.
Basal Rate
The amount of insulin that must be administered in order to maintain normal levels of blood glucose throughout the day is referred to as the basal rate. The vast majority of people constantly produce insulin in order to maintain normal levels of glucose throughout the day. This normally occurring phenomenon can be artificially replicated in a person with diabetes by using an insulin pump to deliver a constant, low level amount of insulin.
Beta Cell
Beta cells are a type of cell that are found in the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the pancreas. Beta cells are responsible for the production and release of insulin, which plays a role in the regulation of glucose levels in the blood.
Biosynthetic Insulin
Biosynthetic insulin is human insulin that has been genetically modified. Compared to insulin derived from cows (bovine insulin) or pigs (porcine insulin), biosynthetic insulin has a much lower risk of causing an allergic reaction in people who use it. They also produce longer-acting insulins, which cover sugars between meals and when fasting, such as during the night. The manufacturers of synthetic insulin produce a short-acting form of the insulin, which works to cover mealtime increases in sugars; they produce longer-acting insulins, which cover sugars between meals and when fasting, such as during the night.
Blood Glucose
Sugar that is present in your bloodstream is referred to as blood sugar or blood glucose. Blood sugar is another name for blood sugar. People who have type 2 diabetes have high blood sugar levels because their insulin levels or insulin's actions aren't functioning properly.
Blood Glucose Monitoring
Blood glucose monitoring, also known as blood glucose testing, is a method for determining the amount of sugar that is present in the blood. To monitor your blood glucose at home, you will need to prick your finger with a lancing device, place a drop of blood on a test strip, and then insert the test strip into a blood glucose testing meter, which will display your blood glucose level. Laboratory testing is another option for determining blood sugar levels. For people with insulin-dependent diabetes, checking their blood glucose levels three or four times a day is generally recommended. Depending on the circumstances, glucose checks may be recommended before meals, two hours after meals, before bedtime, in the middle of the night, before and after exercise, and at various other times throughout the day and night.
Blood Glucose Meter
People who have diabetes use a device called a blood glucose meter, which is a compact and portable piece of equipment, to monitor the levels of sugar in their blood. A small puncture is made in the skin with a lancet, and then a drop of blood is placed on a test strip that is inserted into the machine. The blood glucose meter, which is also referred to as a monitor in some contexts, is used to measure and display the current blood sugar level.
Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is defined as the measurement of the pressure or force exerted by the blood against the blood vessels (arteries). Blood pressure is represented by two numbers. The systolic pressure, also known as the top number, is the measurement of the pressure in the arteries that occurs when the heart contracts and forces more blood into the arteries. It is the first number on the blood pressure monitor. The diastolic pressure is the pressure that is measured in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. This is the second number in the reading. People who are not pregnant and who have diabetes should strive to keep their blood pressure at or below 130/80.
BUN
Nitrogen in the blood, also known as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), is a byproduct of metabolism that is eliminated through the urine. Its level in the blood is measured as an indirect indicator of how well the kidneys are working. An elevated BUN level in the blood may be an indicator of early kidney damage, which would mean that the kidneys are not excreting BUN as efficiently as they should be.
BMI
The body mass index, also known as BMI, is a calculation that uses a person's height and weight to determine whether they are underweight, at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The body mass index (BMI) provides an estimate of the dangers to one's health that are posed by their current weight. You can compute it for yourself right here.
Bolus Insulin
Insulin that is taken at mealtime for the purpose of maintaining blood glucose control after a meal is referred to as bolus insulin. The quantity of bolus insulin that you require is decided by the size of the meal that you have just finished eating. Some individuals undergoing insulin treatment choose to take fast-acting insulins, which typically begin to take effect within 15 to 30 minutes and continue to be effective for several hours.
Borderline diabetes
Prediabetes is often referred to by the term "borderline diabetes," despite the fact that the American Diabetes Association does not recognize this term.
Brittle Diabetes
Diabetes brittle is a type of diabetes in which a person's blood sugar level frequently and very quickly shifts from high to low and from low to high in the course of the disease.
Bunion
Bunion is a bump or bulge on the first joint of the big toe that is caused by the swelling of a sac of fluid under the skin and abnormalities in the joint; women are typically the ones who are affected because of tight fitting or pointed shoes or high heels that put pressure on the toes, forcing the outward movement of the joint. Bunion is caused by the swelling of a sac of fluid under the skin. People who have flat feet or arches that are not very high are also more likely to develop bunions. Bunion deformities can be avoided by wearing shoes with adequate padding and adequate fit. The pressure that is put on the other toes by the bunion on the big toe can cause other problems to arise as well, including serious infections.
C
Callus
A callus is a small area of skin, typically on the foot, that has become thick and hard as a result of rubbing or pressure. Calluses can lead to other complications, such as a serious infection. Calluses on the foot can be avoided by wearing shoes with a good fit.
Calorie
A calorie is a unit of energy that can be derived from food, with some foods having a greater number of calories than others. Proteins and carbohydrates both contain calories, but fats have more. Most vegetables have few.
C-Peptide
C-peptide, also known as "connecting peptide," is a substance that the pancreas secretes into the bloodstream in an amount that is comparable to that of insulin. A measurement of C-peptide levels can reveal the amount of insulin that is being produced by the body.
Capillaries
Capillaries are the blood vessels in the body that are the smallest in diameter. Oxygen and glucose are able to enter cells because they are able to travel through the capillary walls. Capillaries are responsible for the transport of waste products from the cells back into the bloodstream. These waste products include carbon dioxide.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are one of the three primary categories of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are primarily composed of sugars and starches, both of which are converted into glucose by the body (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells).
Carbohydrate Counting
Carbohydrate counting is a method of meal planning that involves keeping track of the grams of carbohydrates present in food in order to ensure that a person does not consume more than a predetermined amount at any one meal. You are able to count each serving of carbohydrates because there are 15 grams in each serving of carbohydrates. If you go with this approach, your primary care physician or diabetes educator will let you know how many total carbs you should aim for in each meal as well as the total amount for the day.
Cardiologist
A cardiologist is a medical practitioner who specializes in the treatment of patients who suffer from heart disease. Having to do with the cardiovascular system, which consists of the heart and the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).
Certified Diabetes Educator
Certified Diabetes Educators, also known as CDEs or CDCESs, are members of the medical community who have been trained and evaluated by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) to instruct individuals diagnosed with diabetes on how to take control of their condition.
Charcot’s Foot
Charcot's foot is a condition that affects the foot and causes the joints and soft tissue in the foot to deteriorate.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy, odorless substance that is produced by the liver. It is an essential component of cell walls and nerves, and it also plays an important role in the production of hormones and in digestion. In addition to being produced by the body itself, cholesterol can also be obtained through the consumption of foods derived from animals. An excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood leads to an increase in particles known as LDL (also known as "bad" cholesterol). This leads to an acceleration of the accumulation of plaque in the artery walls, which ultimately results in atherosclerosis.
Chronic
Something that is long-lasting is said to have a chronic nature. Exactly the opposite of acute.
Coma
Coma is a state of emergency in which a person is no longer conscious; it can happen to people who have diabetes when their blood sugar is either too high or too low.
Complication
Complications are harmful effects of diabetes, such as damage to the eyes, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, teeth and gums, feet, skin, or kidneys. Complications are also known as diabetic complications. According to numerous studies, maintaining healthy levels of blood sugar (blood glucose), blood pressure, and cholesterol can assist in the prevention or postponement of these conditions.
Congestive Heart Failure
The inability of the heart to pump blood effectively due to changes in the heart muscle is the hallmark of congestive heart failure. When this happens, the heart is unable to pump enough blood throughout the rest of the body.
Coronary Heart Disease
The most prevalent form of heart disease, coronary heart disease is brought on by atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of arteries brought on in part by fatty plaques that build up along blood vessel walls in the coronaries (the arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood). Coronary heart disease can reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the heart.
Creatinine
A waste product that results from the breakdown of protein in the diet as well as in the muscles of the body is called creatinine. The kidneys are responsible for eliminating creatinine from the body. The amount of creatinine that is found in the blood rises to a higher level as kidney disease gets worse.
D
Down Phenomenon
The rise in blood sugar levels that occurs in the early morning hours is referred to as the dawn phenomenon.
Dehydration
Dehydration is the state of having lost a significant amount of body water; when a person with diabetes has a blood sugar level that is very high, it causes an increase in the amount of water lost through increased urination and, as a result, extreme thirst.
Diabetes
See type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
DCCT Trial
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was an investigation that was carried out by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases between the years of 1983 and 1993 in participants who had type 1 diabetes. According to the findings of the study, intensive treatment, in comparison to conventional treatment, significantly helped prevent or delay the complications of diabetes. Intensive treatment consisted of multiple daily insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump with multiple blood sugar (blood glucose) readings throughout the day. Both of these options were available. In the course of the research, several complications emerged, including diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy.
Certified Diabetes Educator
An educator in diabetes is a member of the medical community who instructs individuals with diabetes in how to effectively manage their condition. Some individuals who work in the field of diabetes education hold the Certified Diabetes Care and Education Specialist (CDCES) credential.
Diabetic Foot
A foot that displays any disease that is either directly caused by diabetes or is a complication of diabetes is referred to as a diabetic foot.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, is a severe condition that can endanger a person's life. It is caused by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), dehydration, and an accumulation of acid in the body, and it requires immediate treatment with insulin and fluids. DKA occurs when there is an inadequate amount of insulin and cells become depleted of sugars. Ketones, which are a different kind of energy source, are triggered into action here. The system causes an accumulation of acidic waste. Coma and even death are both possible outcomes of ketoacidosis. A registered dietitian (RD) is a nutritionist who has met the rigorous educational and professional requirements necessary to hold the title of "dietitian." A dietitian is a nutritionist who advises patients on the types and quantities of foods they should consume to meet specific dietary requirements.
Diabetes Prevention Program
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was an investigation that was carried out by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases between the years of 1998 and 2001 on individuals who were at a high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Participants in the study all had impaired glucose tolerance, which is also known as prediabetes, and all of them were overweight. According to the findings of the study, people who lost between 5 and 7 percent of their body weight by following a diet that was low in fat and calories and engaging in moderate exercise (typically walking for 30 minutes, five days a week) had a 58 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Participants who were given metformin in oral tablet form saw a 31% reduction in their likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes as a result of their treatment.
Diabetic Retinopathy
One of the many forms of diabetic eye disease, diabetic retinopathy is characterized by damage to the retina's small blood vessels. It is possible that you will lose your vision.
Diabetologist
A medical practitioner who focuses their practice on providing care to diabetic patients.
Diagnostic Process
The process of identifying a disease based on its outward manifestations, known as the diagnostic process.
Dialysis
Dialysis is a process that removes waste products from the blood in an artificial manner. The kidneys are normally responsible for carrying out this function. In the event that the kidneys fail, the blood will need to be artificially cleaned using specialized equipment. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are the two primary methods that make up the dialysis process. A loss of kidney function and the requirement for dialysis are both potential outcomes of diabetic kidney disease.
DPP-4 Inhibitor
Inhibitors of the DPP-4 Medications that help reduce the amount of glucose that is produced by the body and increase the amount of insulin that is produced after a meal. Among the medications that fall into this category are the type 2 diabetes treatments januvia (sitagliptin) and tradjenta (linagliptin).
Dupuytren's Contracture
Diabetes can lead to a condition called Dupuytren's contracture, in which the palm of the hand and the fingers become thicker and shorter, causing the fingers to curl inward.
E
Edema
Edema refers to swelling that is brought on by an accumulation of excess fluid in the body.
Emergency Medical Identification
People who have diabetes or other medical problems often carry emergency medical identification in the form of cards, bracelets, or necklaces with a message that can be read by others in the event that they experience a medical emergency such as coma.
Endocrine Cells
A group of specialized cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream is referred to as an endocrine gland. Endocrine glands include, for instance, the islets in the pancreas, which are responsible for the secretion of insulin.
Endocrinologist
A medical practitioner who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of hormone-related conditions.
Enzyme
An enzyme is a type of protein that is produced by the body and is responsible for catalyzing a chemical reaction. For example, the digestive tract produces enzymes to assist in digestion.
Eryhtrithol
Erythritol is a sugar alcohol sweetener that has a calorie count that is lower than one per gram and has a negligible effect on the amount of sugar in the blood. Intense consumption of erythritol can cause discomfort in the gastrointestinal tract as a negative side effect.
Exchange List
Exchange lists are a method of grouping foods together in order to assist people who are following special diets in remaining on their diets; each group lists food in a portion size appropriate for that group. One food serving in one group can be changed out for another food serving of the same group in an exchange, trade, or substitution. The categories for the foods on the lists are: starches (including bread), meats, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products; milk; and fats. Within the confines of a given food group, one portion of each food item within that group contains approximately the same amount of calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
F
Fasting Plasma Glucose
The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test, also known as the FPG, is the method of screening for diabetes that is most commonly used. The FPG measures a person's blood sugar level after they have fasted or gone at least 8 hours without eating anything. Blood glucose levels during fasting should be less than 100 milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dL. A plasma glucose level after fasting that is greater than 100 mg/dL but lower than 126 mg/dL indicates that the individual has an impaired fasting glucose level but may not have diabetes. When the blood glucose level in the morning after not eating is greater than 126 mg/dL and when blood tests confirm abnormal results, a diagnosis of diabetes can be made. It is possible to retake these examinations on a different day or to measure glucose levels 2 hours after a meal. The findings ought to point to an elevated level of blood glucose that is greater than 200 mg/dL.
Fats
Fats are substances that not only assist the body in utilizing certain vitamins and in maintaining healthy skin, but also serve as the primary means by which the body stores energy. Saturated fats, unsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and trans fats are the various kinds of fats that can be found in food. The American Diabetes Association suggests cutting back on the amount of cholesterol and saturated fats we consume in order to keep our blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as close to normal as is practically possible. The levels of LDL (also known as "bad") cholesterol in the blood are increased by the consumption of saturated fats. Both the amount of dietary cholesterol and the amount of saturated fats should be limited to no more than 300 milligrams per day and less than 10 percent of the total calories that are consumed should come from saturated fats.
Fiber
Fiber is a form of carbohydrate that the body is unable to break down and use. It is not possible to convert it into sugar. You can get it from eating fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, and grains that are whole. Because foods high in fiber tend to be more substantial and require more chewing, they can support your efforts to lose weight by making you feel fuller for a longer period of time. Consuming an adequate amount of fiber can not only help improve your digestive health but also your blood sugar levels if you do so. Fiber plays an important role in the digestive process.
Food Journaling
Food journaling, also known as meal tracking, is the practice of recording what you eat by either writing it down or doing so in some other way. According to the findings of some studies, keeping a log of the food you consume can assist you in achieving your weight loss goals.
Fructose
Fructose is a type of sugar that can be found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as in honey. Although fructose is used to sweeten certain diet foods, it is generally not recommended for people who have diabetes because it has the potential to have a negative effect on blood sugar.
G
Gangrene
Gangrene is the death of body tissues, which is typically brought on by an inadequate supply of blood, most notably in the legs and feet.
Gastroparesis
Gastroparesis is a form of nerve damage that affects the stomach and intestines; when a person has this condition, food does not get digested properly and does not move through the stomach and intestinal tract normally. Because nerve damage slows down the movement of food through the digestive tract, it can cause symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. This kind of nerve damage can also lead to significant problems with low blood sugar levels and unpredictable swings in those levels.
Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels that begin during pregnancy or are identified for the first time during pregnancy. Hormonal shifts that occur during pregnancy can alter the way insulin works, which can lead to high blood sugar levels. After giving birth, a woman's blood sugar levels will typically return to normal. However, studies have shown that women who have had gestational diabetes have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Diabetes during pregnancy can increase the risk of complications during labor and delivery, as well as the risk of fetal complications related to the larger size of the baby that results from the pregnancy.
Gingivitis
A condition of the gums that is characterized by inflammation and bleeding is referred to as gingivitis.
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is an eye disease that is characterized by elevated pressure within the eye; if left untreated, glaucoma can cause damage to the optic nerve, which in turn can lead to vision loss or even blindness.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Glomerular filtration rate is a measurement of how well the kidneys filter and eliminate waste products.
Glp-1 Agonist
Agonists of the GLP-1 Receptor GLP-1 receptor drugs are a treatment option for type 2 diabetes. These drugs mimic the effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1, which is secreted after eating and has the effect of reducing blood glucose levels. Drugs with the brand names Ozempic, Rybelsus, Trulicity, Mounjero, Victoza (liraglutide), and Bydureon (exenatide) are all part of this category of medication.
Glucagon
Glucagon is a hormone that raises the level of glucose in the blood by releasing glucose that has been stored in the liver; glucagon is sometimes injected into a person who has passed out as a result of low blood sugar levels. The glucagon that was injected into the patient assists in increasing the glucose level in the blood.
Glucose
Glucose is a simple sugar that can be found in blood; it is the primary source of energy for the body and is also referred to as "dextrose."
Glucose Tablets
Glucose tablets are a form of sugar that can be chewed and are used by diabetics to raise their blood sugar levels rapidly in times when their blood sugar levels drop dangerously low (hypoglycemia). These items are available in a wide range of flavors and formats, including gels, liquids, and powders, respectively. If you take a medication that increases your risk of developing this condition, your doctor may advise you to bring glucose tablets with you at all times, but especially when you engage in physical activity.
Glucose Tolerance Test
The glucose tolerance test is a test that is used to determine whether or not a person has diabetes. This test is performed in the morning, before the person has eaten, in a laboratory or in the office of a doctor. Before beginning the test, it is recommended that you go at least eight hours without eating anything at all. The patient will be asked to fast prior to having a blood sample taken. After that, the individual consumes a liquid that contains sugar in it. Two hours later, a second blood test is done. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood sugar level that is equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl. Blood sugar levels during fasting that range from 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl are considered to be impaired fasting glucose levels. A person is considered to have diabetes if the result of a test administered after two hours reveals that their blood sugar level is equal to or higher than 200 mg/dl. If your blood glucose level after two hours is between 140 and 199 mg/dl, you are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance.
Glycated Hemoglobin Test
The glycated hemoglobin test, also known as the HbA1c test, is an important blood test that can determine how well you are managing your diabetes. Hemoglobin is a substance that is found in red blood cells and it is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. Additionally, it has the ability to combine with sugar found in the blood, resulting in the formation of a substance known as glycated hemoglobin or a hemoglobin A1C. In conjunction with glucose monitoring performed at home, this test provides a measurement that is representative of the patient's blood sugar level on a weekly basis for a period ranging from six to twelve weeks. People who have diabetes should strive to keep their blood glucose levels at or below 7 percent. If the HbA1c level is equal to or greater than 6.5 percent, then this test can also be used to diagnose diabetes.
Glycogen
Glycogen is a form of glucose that is used for storing energy in the liver and muscles. If blood glucose levels decrease, the hormone glucagon triggers the body to convert glycogen to glucose and release it into the blood stream.
Glycemic Index
Glycemic index: A ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods, based on the food's effect on blood sugar (blood glucose) compared with a standard reference food. This value is not easily accessible for meal planning.
Glycemic Load
Glycemic Load: A measure of how food raises blood sugar levels that compares the ability of the same amount of carbs in each food to raise your blood sugar higher. To figure out a food’s glycemic load, multiply its glycemic index (GI) by the number of carbohydrate grams in a serving, and then divide that by 100. Low-GL foods rank from 1 to 10; medium-GL foods rank from 11 to 19; and a high-GL foods rank 20 or higher. One cup of watermelon may have a high GI, of 76, but it has a low GL, of 8. Most registered dietitians recommend considering a food’s glycemic load, rather than where it falls on the glycemic index, to build a diabetes-friendly diet.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): Hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Glycosylated hemoglobin is tested to determine the average level of blood glucose over the past two to three months.
H
HDL Cholesterol
HDL cholesterol, stands for high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol: A fat found in the blood that takes extra cholesterol from the blood to the liver for removal. Sometimes called "good" cholesterol.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure: A condition when the blood flows through the blood vessels at a force greater than normal; high blood pressure strains the heart, harms the arteries, and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney problems; also called "hypertension." The goal for blood pressure in people with diabetes is less than 130/80.
High Blood Sugar
See hyperglycemia.
Home Glucose Monitoring
Home blood glucose monitoring: A way in which a person can test how much sugar is in the blood; also called "self-monitoring of blood glucose." Home glucose monitoring tests whole blood (plasma and blood cell components); thus, the results can be different from lab values, which test plasma values of glucose. Typically, the lab plasma values can be higher than the glucose checks done at home with a glucose monitor.
Honeymoon Phase
Some people with type 1 diabetes experience a brief remission called the "honeymoon period." During this time their pancreas may still secrete some insulin. Over time, this secretion stops and as this happens, the person will require more insulin from injections. The honeymoon period can last weeks, months, or longer.
Hormone
A chemical released in one organ or part of the body that travels through the blood to another area, where it helps to control certain bodily functions; for instance, insulin is a hormone made by the beta cells in the pancreas and when released, it triggers other cells to use glucose for energy.
Human Insulin
Bio-engineered insulin very similar to insulin made by the body; the DNA code for making human insulin is put into bacteria or yeast cells and the insulin made is purified and sold as human insulin.
Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar; this condition is fairly common in people with diabetes. Many things can cause hyperglycemia. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have.
Hypertension
See high blood pressure.
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar; the condition often occurs in people with diabetes. Most cases occur when there is too much insulin and not enough glucose in your body.
Hypoglycemia Unawareness
Hypoglycemia unawareness is a state in which a person does not feel or recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia. People who have frequent episodes of hypoglycemia may no longer experience the warning signs of it.
I
Impaired Fasting Glucose
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a previous term for prediabetes found when using a fasting plasma glucose test.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance
A previous term for prediabetes found when using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
Impotence
Also called "erectile dysfunction;" persistent inability of the penis to become erect or stay erect. Some men may become impotent after having diabetes for a long time, because nerves and blood vessels in the penis become damaged. It is estimated that 50% of men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes experiences impotence.
Incontinence
Loss of bladder or bowel control; the accidental loss of urine or feces.
Inhaled Insulin
An insulin in powder form that can be inhaled to manage blood sugar.
Injection Site Rotation
Changing the areas on the body where a person injects insulin; by changing the area of injection, the injections will be easier, safer, and more comfortable. If the same injection site is used over and over again, hardened areas, lumps, or indentations can develop under the skin, which keep the insulin from being used properly. These lumps or indentations are called "lipodystrophies."
Injection Site
Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily.
Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body use sugar for energy; the beta cells of the pancreas make insulin.
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
Former term used for type 1 diabetes.
Insulin Mixture
A mixture of insulin that contains short-, intermediate- or long-acting insulin; you can buy premixed insulin to eliminate the need for mixing insulin from two bottles.
Insulin Pump
A small, computerized device -- about the size of a small cell phone -- that is worn on a belt or put in a pocket; insulin pumps have a small flexible tube with a fine needle on the end. The needle is inserted under the skin of the abdomen and taped in place. A carefully measured, steady flow of insulin is released into the body.
Insulin Reaction
Another term for hypoglycemia in a person with diabetes; this occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or has exercised without eating extra food.
Insulin Receptors
Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow insulin in the blood to join or bind with the cell; when the cell and insulin bind together, the cell can take glucose from the blood and use it for energy.
Insulin Resistance
When the effect of insulin on muscle, fat, and liver cells becomes less effective; this effect occurs with both insulin produced in the body and with insulin injections. Therefore, higher levels of insulin are needed to lower the blood sugar.
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
This syndrome is defined by a cluster of medical conditions that raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. A diagnosis is important, because you can make health improvements that lessen the risk. Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when a person has 3 or more of the following:
  1. Blood pressure equal to or higher than 130/85 mmHg
  2. Fasting blood sugar (glucose) equal to or higher than 100 mg/dL
  3. Large waist circumference (a waistline of 40 inches or more for men; 35 inches or more for a woman)
  4. Low HDL cholesterol (under 40mg/dL for men; under 50 mg/dL for women)
  5. Triglycerides equal to or higher than 150 mg/dL
Intensive Insulin Therapy
A treatment for diabetes in which blood sugar (blood glucose) is kept as close to normal as possible. Intramuscular injection inserting liquid medication into a muscle with a syringe. Glucagon may be given as an intramuscular injection for hypoglycemia.
Islet Cell Autoantibodies (Icas)
Proteins found in the blood of people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. They are also found in people who may be developing type 1 diabetes. The presence of ICAs indicates that the body's immune system has been damaging beta cells in the pancreas.
Intermediate-Acting Insulin
Intermediate- acting insulin covers insulin needs for about half the day or overnight; this type of insulin is often combined with rapid- or short-acting insulin. Includes NPH and Lente.
Intermittent Claudication
Pain in the muscles of the legs that occurs off and on, usually while walking or exercising; the pain results from atherosclerosis of the blood vessels feeding the muscles of the lower extremities. Claudication usually increases with age and is most common in people in their sixth or seventh decade of life. Risk factors for developing narrowing of the arteries that can cause claudication include smoking cigarettes, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Drugs are available to treat this condition.
J
Juvenile-Onset Diabetes
Former term used for type 1 diabetes.
K
Ketoacidosis
See diabetic ketoacidosis.
Ketone Bodies
Often simply called ketones, one of the products of fat burning in the body; when there is not enough insulin, your body is unable to use sugar (glucose) for energy and your body breaks down its own fat and protein. When fat is used, ketone bodies, an acid, appear in your urine and blood. A large amount of ketones in your system can lead to a serious condition called ketoacidosis. Ketones can be detected and monitored in your urine at home using products such as Ketostix, Chemstrips, and Acetest. When your blood sugar is consistently greater than 250 mg/dl, if you are ill or if you are pregnant and have diabetes, ketones should be checked regularly.
Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)
In a person with diabetes, nephropathy is any one of several conditions caused by changes in the very small blood vessels in the kidneys. These changes cause scarring of the kidneys, which can eventually lead to kidney failure. People who have had diabetes for a long time may develop nephropathy. An early sign of nephropathy is when proteins can be detected in the urine.
Kidney Threshold
See renal threshold.
L
Lancet
Lancet is a fine, sharp pointed needle for pricking the skin; used in blood sugar monitoring.
Laser Treatment
The use of a strong beam of light (laser) to heal a damaged area; a person with diabetes might receive laser treatments to heal blood vessels in the eye.
Late-Onset Diabetes
Former term used for type 2 diabetes.
Lipid
Another term for a fat or fat-like substance in the blood; the body stores fat as energy for future use, just like a car that has a reserve fuel tank. When the body needs energy, it can break down lipids into fatty acids and burn them like glucose. Excess amounts of fats in the diet can cause fat buildup in the walls of the arteries -- called "atherosclerosis." Excess amounts of calories from fats or other nutrients can lead to an increase in weight gain.
Lipid Profile
Lipid profile is blood test that measures total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is then calculated from the results. A lipid profile is one measure of a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.
Lipodystrophy
Lipodystrophy is caused by the breaking down or building up of fat below the surface of the skin, resulting in lumps or small dents in the skin surface. (See lipohypertrophy or lipoatrophy.) Lipodystrophy may be caused by repeated injections of insulin in the same spot.
Lipohypertrophy
Buildup of fat below the surface of the skin, causing lumps. Lipohypertrophy may be caused by repeated injections of insulin in the same spot.
Liver
An organ in the body that changes food into energy, removes alcohol and poisons from the blood, and makes bile, a substance that breaks down fats and helps rid the body of wastes.
M
Macrovascular Disease
Disease of the large blood vessels, such as those found in the heart. Lipids and blood clots build up in the large blood vessels and can cause atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease.
Macula
The macula is the central region of the retina in the back of the eye, and it is responsible for reading and seeing fine details.
Macular Edema
The swelling of the macula is referred to as macular edema.
Meal Planning
Any strategy that is used to map out what you are going to eat is referred to as a meal plan (or meal planning). This term may refer to adhering to a particular diet, or it may just indicate the process of thinking through what you plan to eat in advance without referring to a particular diet.
MODY
Diabetes mellitus type 2, also known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), is a form of diabetes that affects younger people.
Metabolic Syndrome
The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to the tendency for a number of conditions to occur together. These conditions include insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes or pre-diabetes, high blood pressure, and high lipid levels.
Metabolism
The term "metabolism" refers to the collection of physiological and chemical reactions that take place in the body during the process of breaking down food into its component parts, generating energy, and producing waste.
Mg/Dl
Mg/dl Sstands for milligrams per deciliter and is a unit of measurement that indicates the concentration of a substance, such as glucose, in a given volume of blood.
Metformin
Metformin is a type of diabetes medication that is taken orally and is considered to be the "first-line" treatment for type 2 diabetes. It is also sometimes used for the treatment of gestational diabetes and prediabetes. Metformin reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver, which in turn helps the body make better use of the insulin it produces. This results in lower blood sugar levels. Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza are just some of the brand names for this type of medication, which is classified as a biguanide.
Microalbumin
Microalbumin is a term referring to minute amounts of the protein known as albumin that can be found in the urine and identified using a specialized laboratory test.
Microalbuminuria
Microalbuminuria is a condition that occurs when there is a detectable amount of the protein albumin in the urine. The early detection of kidney damage, also known as nephropathy, which is a common and serious complication of diabetes, is indicated by microalbuminuria. The management of microalbuminuria typically entails controlling one's blood sugar (blood glucose), bringing down one's blood pressure, and following a healthy eating plan.
Microvascular Disease
Microvascular disease is a disease that affects the smallest blood vessels in the body, including those that can be found in the eyes, nerves, and kidneys. The vessel walls become abnormally thick but weak as the disease progresses. The fragility of the walls makes it likely that they will crack and bleed, which will lead to complications.
Mixed Insulin Dose
A mixed dose is a prescribed amount of insulin in which two different types of insulin are combined and injected at the same time; a typical mixed dose combines a rapid-acting insulin with a longer-acting insulin. It is possible for a mixed dose to come in a syringe that has already been mixed or for the mixing to take place at the time of injection. If you need better control of your blood sugar, your doctor may prescribe a mixed dose.
Monofilament
A piece of monofilament, also known as a "hairbrush bristle," is a short piece of nylon that is used to test the sensitivity of the nerves in the foot.
Mononeuropathy
Mononeuropathy is a form of neuropathy that affects just one nerve.
Myocardial Infarction
An infarction of the myocardium, also known as a heart attack, occurs when there is a disruption in the blood supply to the heart as a result of constricted or blocked blood vessels.
N
Natural Sweeteners
Natural sweeteners without calories are comparable to artificial sweeteners, with the exception that natural sweeteners come from natural sources. Because it is derived from the stevia plant, stevia, which is sold under brand names such as Truvia and PureVia, is regarded as a natural sweetener.
Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum
A skin condition known as necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, which typically affects the lower parts of the legs. Lesions can be very small or they can cover a significant amount of surface area. They frequently have a purple border and have a raised appearance that can be described as waxy, yellow, and raised.
Neovascularization
The growth of new, smaller blood vessels is referred to as neovascularization. This can cause vision problems or even blindness if it occurs in the retina.
Nephropathy
Nephropathy is a disease of the kidneys caused by damage to the small blood vessels or to the units in the kidneys that are responsible for cleaning the blood. Nephropathy can develop in people who have had diabetes for a long period of time.
Nerve Conduction Study
Nerve conduction studies are one method that can be used to diagnose neuropathy. These tests are used to measure the severity of nerve damage.
Neurologist
A neurologist is a medical specialist who diagnoses and treats conditions that affect the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves).
Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy is damage to the nerves, and individuals who have had diabetes that was not well controlled are at risk of developing neuropathy.
Neuropathic Pain
Pain that originates from damaged nerves is referred to as neuropathic pain. One of the conditions that can lead to nerve damage is diabetes. Burning or tingling sensations are typical of neuropathic pain, but this type of pain can also have other characteristics, such as stabbing, shooting, electric shock-like, or numbing qualities. It is often unprovoked, but it can be brought on by a stimulus that, under normal circumstances, would not cause pain signals to be triggered (allodynia). It's also possible that your response to a stimulus will feel abnormally intense (hyperalgesia) or out of the ordinary (paresthesia).
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes
Non-insulin dependent diabetes: Former term for type 2 diabetes.
Dietitian
Dietitians are also referred to as nutritionists.
NPH Insulin
Insulin NPH is a type of insulin that has an intermediate acting time. The abbreviation for "neutral protamine Hagedorn" is "NPH." After being injected, it typically takes between one and two hours for NPH insulin to begin to bring blood sugar levels down. It takes between 6 and 10 hours after injection for the full effect to kick in, but it continues to be effective for about 10 hours after that. Insulin N is another name for this.
Nutritionist
A nutritionist is someone who has received education in the field of nutrition; they might or might not have additional specialized training and qualifications.
O
Obesity
A person's weight in relation to their height, also known as their body mass index, is used to determine whether or not they are obese. Obesity is a term that is used to describe having an excessive amount of body fat (BMI). Obesity is defined as having a body mass index that is greater than 30. Your body will become less sensitive to the action of insulin if you are obese. It is believed that having excess fat in the body is a risk factor for developing diabetes.
Ophthalmologist
An ophthalmologist is a type of physician who specializes in the treatment of eye injuries and diseases.
Optometrist
An optometrist is a person who has received professional training to examine patients' eyes, diagnose and treat eye conditions, as well as some diseases, through the prescription and customization of corrective lenses. After optometry school, some optometrists go on to complete additional clinical training or a fellowship in their area of specialty.
Oral Diabetes Medications
Oral diabetes medications are medications that are taken by mouth to lower the amount of sugar that is circulating in the blood; oral diabetes medications are prescribed to people whose pancreas still produces some insulin even though they have diabetes. In cases of diabetes, these medications should not be taken during pregnancy.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
A screening for prediabetes and diabetes that can be performed. After an overnight fast, a professional in the medical field will perform an oral glucose tolerance test on the patient. After having a sample of their blood drawn, the patient then consumes a beverage that is high in glucose. Samples of the patient's blood are taken at regular intervals for the next two to three hours. The results of the tests are compared to a benchmark, which reveals how the body utilizes glucose over the course of time.
Overweight
A person is considered to be overweight if they have excess body fat and have a body mass index (BMI) of between 25 and 29.9. A higher likelihood of developing health issues such as type 2 diabetes is associated with being overweight or obese.
P
Paleo Diet
The Paleo Diet, also known as the "caveman diet" and an abbreviation for the Paleolithic diet, is a way of eating that encourages individuals to steer clear of foods that paleolithic people would not have been likely to consume. These foods include grains, legumes, dairy products, soda, candies, and cured or processed meats.
Pancreas
The pancreas is an organ that sits behind the lower portion of the stomach and is roughly the size of a hand. It is responsible for producing insulin, which allows the body to use sugar as a source of energy.
Peak Action
The point in time when an effect is at its greatest possible magnitude; for instance, the point in time when insulin has the greatest possible effect on blood sugar.
Periodontal Disease
Periodontal disease refers to damage that occurs to the gums and tissues that surround the teeth; individuals who have diabetes have a higher risk of developing periodontal disease in comparison to individuals who do not have diabetes.
Peripheral Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy is a form of nerve damage that most frequently affects the lower extremities, specifically the feet and legs.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is an abnormal condition that affects the blood vessels outside of the heart, most commonly the hands and feet; it frequently occurs as a result of decreased blood flow and narrowing of the arteries as a result of atherosclerosis; people who have had diabetes for a long time are at risk for developing PVD.
Photocoagulation
One of the treatments for diabetic retinopathy is called photocoagulation. It is possible to stop bleeding from blood vessels in the eye by using a powerful beam of light known as a laser, which is also used to burn away extra blood vessels that should not have grown there.
Podiatrist
Podiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the feet.
Polydipsia
Polydipsia refers to excessive thirst that persists for extended amounts of time and may be an indicator of diabetes.
Polyphagia
Polyphagia, also known as excessive hunger and eating, is a condition that has been linked to diabetes. If insulin levels are low or if there is insulin resistance, the cells of the body will not receive the necessary amount of sugar, which will lead to feelings of hunger. Even though they are eating more than usual, people who have polyphagia frequently experience weight loss because the extra calories they consume are expelled in the form of sugar through their urine (glucose).
Polyunsaturated Fat
Polyunsaturated fat is a type of fat that, when consumed in place of saturated fats in the diet, has the potential to lower levels of LDL cholesterol, also known as the "bad" cholesterol.
Polyuria
Polyuria refers to an increased need to urinate frequently and is a typical symptom of diabetes.
Prediabetes
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has higher-than-normal levels of sugar (blood glucose) in their blood, but these levels are not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. People who have prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as well as an increased risk of having a heart attack or a stroke. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose are older names for the condition now known as prediabetes.
Premixed Insulin
Insulin that has been premixed is a combination of two distinct types of insulin that is produced commercially. See also insulin in the ratios of 50/50 and 70/30.
Proinsulin
The pancreas is responsible for the initial production of proinsulin, which is later fragmented into several smaller molecules to produce insulin.
Proliferative Retinopathy
In the condition known as proliferative retinopathy, fragile new blood vessels grow along the retina and in the vitreous humor of the eye.
Proteins
Proteins are one of the three primary categories of foods. Amino acids, also known as the "building blocks of the cells," are the components that compose proteins. Protein is essential for the growth and maintenance of cellular structures. A wide variety of foods, including meat, fish, and poultry, eggs, legumes, and dairy products, all contain some level of protein.
Proteinuria
Proteinuria is characterized by the presence of protein in urine, which serves as an indicator that the kidneys are not functioning normally.
Q

I'm sorry, but no definitions exist for the letter Q.

R
Rapid Acting Insulin
Insulin with a rapid onset of action fulfills the body's insulin requirements for meals consumed at the same time as the injection and is combined with insulin with a longer duration of action. Contains Humalog, Novolog, and Apidra in its package.
Rebound Effect
A swing to a high level of glucose in the blood after having a low level is referred to as rebound hyperglycemia. Look up the Somogyi effect.
Registered Dietitian (RD)
A Registered Dietition is a member of the medical community who has completed specialized coursework in the application of diet and nutrition to the maintenance of a healthy body and has been awarded a credential by the Commission on Dietetic Registration. A registered dietitian can assist you in developing a diet and meal plan that will help you manage your blood sugar levels or maintain a healthy weight.
Regular Insulin
Regular insulin is a form of insulin that acts in a short amount of time.
Renal
Renal refers to anything having to do with the kidneys.
Retina
The retina is located in the middle of the inner layer of the eye's back, and it is responsible for detecting light. The retina contains a large number of tiny blood vessels, some of which can become damaged when a person has diabetes for an extended period of time.
Retinopathy
A disease that affects the small blood vessels in the retina of the eye is known as retinopathy.
Risk Factor
A person's exposure to anything that raises the likelihood that they will develop a disease or condition, is referred to as a risk factor.
S
Saccharin
Saccharin is a type of artificial sweetener that can be used in place of sugar due to the fact that it does not raise blood sugar levels and does not contain any calories. It is sold under the brand names SugarTwin and Sweet'N Low.
Secondary Diabetes
The term "secondary diabetes" refers to a form of the condition that is brought on by another disease, as well as certain medications or chemicals.
Self Management
In the context of diabetes, the ongoing process of a person managing their diabetes is referred to as self-management. This involves preparing meals ahead of time, engaging in physical activity, and monitoring blood sugar (blood glucose). It may also involve taking diabetes medications, dealing with episodes of low and high blood sugar, managing diabetes while traveling, and other related activities. Together with members of their diabetes care team, the person who has diabetes creates his or her own treatment plan for self-management of the condition. These members may include physicians, nurses, diabetes educators, dietitians, pharmacists, and others.
Short Acting Insulin
Insulin with a short acting time, such as humulin, novolin, or Velosulin, satisfies the body's insulin requirements for meals consumed within 30–60 minutes (in an insulin pump).
Sliding Scale
A sliding scale is a set of instructions for adjusting insulin dosage in accordance with the results of blood sugar (blood glucose) tests, the amount of food consumed, or the amount of physical activity engaged in.
Sodium
Sodium is a type of mineral that can be found in salt. Consuming too much, as the majority of people in the United States do, can cause an increase in blood pressure, which in turn raises the risk of having a heart attack or a stroke. Because diabetes is frequently linked to these issues, it is essential to keep a close eye on what you take in. Sodium content is typically very high in foods that have been processed.
Somogyi Effect
The somogyi effect, also known as the "rebound effect," is characterized by a sharp rise in blood sugar levels, from an extremely low level of glucose in the blood to a very high level. This phenomenon can also be referred to as the "rebound effect." It occurs most frequently during the late hours of the night and the wee hours of the morning. People who wake up with high blood sugar levels may want to check their sugar levels in the middle of the night if they have diabetes. If your blood sugar levels are consistently low, your doctor may recommend that you eat a snack in the evening or reduce the amount of insulin you take.
Sorbitol
Sorbitol is a sugar that is produced from fruits and is metabolized slowly by the body. It is a sweetener that is used in diet foods and is referred to as a "nutritive sweetener" because each gram of sorbitol contains four calories, the same as each gram of table sugar and each gram of starch. These compounds, which are used in a lot of foods that are labeled as having "no sugar added" or "sugar free," can cause your blood glucose levels to rise. Just because a food is labeled as having no added sugar does not mean that it is devoid of carbohydrates in any way.
Starch
Starch is a type of carbohydrate that can be found in grains, as well as in starchy vegetables like peas, corn, beans, and potatoes. Starch can also be produced by some bacteria. Because starch, like sugar (which is also a form of carbohydrate), can cause an increase in your blood sugar level, it is essential to pay attention to the quantity of starch that you consume.
Strength Training
The term "strength training" refers to any physical activity that is designed to build muscle mass or strength. Performing exercises such as lifting free weights, working out with weight machines, and working out with resistance bands are some examples. It is sometimes referred to as resistance exercise, and it can help your body become more efficient at using insulin.
Sucralose
Sucralose is a type of sugar substitute that is an artificial sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sugar and that can be used in cooking. Sucralose is sold under the brand name Splenda.
Sugar
Sugar is a type of the carbohydrate group known as simple carbohydrates, and it has a sweet taste. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose are examples of different kinds of sugar.
Sugar Alcohols
Sugar alcohols are a type of low-calorie sweetener that are frequently used in foods that are marketed as "diet" or "sugar-free." The typical ending for these is "-ol." Xylitol, erythritol, and sorbitol are a few examples of these types of sugar alcohols. Be sure to check the food's nutrition label before consuming it because foods that contain these sweeteners might still contain carbs and might cause a rise in blood sugar. Sugar alcohols might make some people's stomachs feel uncomfortable.
Stroke
A stroke is a condition that is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the brain; it can cause a person to lose the ability to speak or move parts of their body.
Subcutaneous Injections
Utilizing a needle and syringe to inject a fluid into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin.
Sulfonylurea
Sulfonylureas are oral diabetic medications that are taken in the form of pills or capsules. These diabetic medications work to lower your blood sugar by stimulating your pancreas to produce more insulin.
T
Truvia
Truvia is the brand name for a sweetener that is manufactured from the stevia leaf. Stevia is a natural sugar substitute that does not contain any calories.
Table Sugar
Table sugar, also known as sucrose, is a type of sugar that must first be broken down into a more basic structure by the body before it can be absorbed by the blood and transported to the cells.
Triglyceride
The majority of the fats that we consume, such as butter, margarines, and oils, are in the form of triglycerides. Triglycerides are fats that are carried in the blood from the food that we eat. Triglycerides that are in excess are stored in the various fat cells found throughout the body. In order for the body to eliminate this kind of fat from the blood, insulin is required.
Type 1 Diabetes
People who have type 1 diabetes produce little to no insulin, which prevents glucose from entering cells to be used as a source of energy. This is because glucose cannot enter cells if the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin, are damaged. This raises the level of sugar in the blood. In order to maintain blood sugar control, people with type 1 diabetes are required to inject themselves with insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes type 2 is a form of the disease in which the amount of insulin produced by the body is either insufficient or the body does not respond normally to the amount of insulin that is present. As a result, glucose in the bloodstream is unable to enter the cells of the body to be used as a source of energy. Because of this, there is a rise in the amount of glucose (sugar) that is present in the blood.
U
U-100
Please refer to insulin unit.
Ulcer
Ulcer is a medical term for a deep wound or break in the skin. Ulcers are a risk factor for people with diabetes who have minor cuts or scrapes on their feet or legs, cuts that take a long time to heal, or cuts that are rubbed raw due to improperly fitting shoes. Ulcers have the potential to become infected and therefore require prompt treatment.
Ultralente Insulin
It is a type of insulin that has a long duration of action; typically, the effect of this type of insulin can be felt anywhere from 25 to 36 hours after injection. This particular type of insulin begins to work between four and five hours after it has been injected, and its effects are at their peak between eight and 14 hours after the injection. Insulin glargine and insulin detemir, both marketed under the brand name Levemir, are two additional long-acting insulin formulations (Lantus).
Insulin Unit
Insulin is typically measured in units called units of insulin, and the most common concentration of insulin is called U-100. The designation "U-100" indicates that there are one hundred insulin units present in one milliliter (ml) of liquid. Insulin can also be found in a U-500 form, which is reserved for patients who have extremely high levels of insulin resistance.
UKPDS Study
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) was a study that was carried out in England on people who had type 2 diabetes between the years 1977 and 1997. According to the findings of the study, people who reduced the amount of glucose in their blood reduced their risk of developing eye disease as well as kidney damage. Those who had type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure and lowered their blood pressure also reduced their risk of having a stroke, eye damage, and dying from long-term complications.
Urea
Urea is a waste product that can be found in the blood and is produced when the liver breaks down protein as part of its normal function. The kidneys are responsible for filtering urea out of the blood and passing it out of the body in the urine.
Urine Testing
Urine testing refers to the process of analyzing urine to determine whether or not it contains ketones. If you have type 1 diabetes, are pregnant and have diabetes, or have gestational diabetes, your physician may ask you to analyze your urine for ketones. Using a dipstick measure, this test can be performed quickly and easily at home.
Urologist
Urologists are medical professionals who have completed additional training to become specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the urinary tract and male genital organs.
V
Vaginitis
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vaginal tissues that can be caused by an infection; a woman who suffers from this condition may experience vaginal discharge, itching, or burning. There is a possibility that diabetic women will experience vaginitis more frequently than women who do not have diabetes.
Vascular
Vascular Meaning "relating to the blood vessels" in the body (arteries, veins, and capillaries).
Vein
A vein is a vessel in the circulatory system that carries blood away from the heart.
Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
High levels of this form of cholesterol in the blood have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Vitrectomy
Vitrectomy is a procedure in which the gel from the center of the eyeball is removed because it contains blood and scar tissue that obstructs vision. A clear fluid is then used to replace the clouded gel that was removed during the procedure.
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Whole Grains
Whole grains are grains that contain not only the starchy endosperm but also the nutrient-dense bran and germ layers of the grain kernel. On the other hand, refined grains (like white bread) have had the bran and germ removed and only contain the starchy endosperm. This is because the bran and germ are indigestible. Whole grains, as opposed to refined grains, contain a greater amount of fiber, and as a result, they are digested more slowly, which means they won't cause your blood sugar to rise as quickly.
Wound Care
Wound care: a wound that either is a foot ulcer or has the potential to become one and the steps taken to ensure that it heals properly. Those who suffer from diabetes are required to take additional safety measures to prevent infections from occurring in wounds.
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Xylitol
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that the body processes slowly and that contains fewer calories than regular table sugar. It is a nutritive sweetener that is used in foods that are intended for weight loss.
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